Monday, March 7, 2016


Conscience help us to restrict ourselves from any wrongful doing. It help us to distinguish between right and wrong, just and unjust.
But conscience is not the inner knowledge of right and wrong. It is based on our life experience, social norms which defines right and wrong rather than our logic and reason.
For examples. we can take female genital mutation, child marriages, polygamy etc which are prevalent in many societies therefor these are not considered as unjust or wrong in these societies, and hardy put any pressure on conciseness of people from these societies before committing these actions.
Many times conscience compels us to justify our actions.. even if reasons and ethics indicate otherwise. At individual and social level it can be improved through evolution and moral education. But many times it remains underdeveloped. Conscience based decision can seems right and just but if thee decisions are not accompanied with reason and ethics, these can adversely affect one and others.
But it is a necessary devices to maintain the basic level ethics of human being, if we can not come with reasons in some instances, where taking immediate decision is necessary, Conscience can at east stop one to take any action which is considered wrong.

Greenness of Recent Budget

Greenness of Recent Budget,
  1. 150 crore allotted to national afforestation program
(But, 150 crore is not sufficient to carry out Afforestation programme to desired extent)
  1. Efforts to meet the target of 175 GW energy from renewable sources by 2022
            (But, funding reduced for Renewable energy projects and MoEF)
  1. Increasing carbon cess on Coal by 200 rupees per tonne to 400 rupees.
            (Effort must be made to replace coal with renewable source, not increased imposition of cess)
  1. Promote organic  farming  through  ‘Parmparagat  Krishi  Vikas  Yojana’
(Carbon sequestration, Sustainable agriculture, Reduced use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, Protection of biodiversity, Reduced dependence on Fertilizers, pesticides – Prevents Eutrophication, nitrate pollution of water sources, biomagnifications etc.)
5. Facility of cooking gas connection for BPL families
   (Indoor air pollution checked, use of firewood eliminated)
6. Programme for  sustainable  management  of  ground  water  resources
5 lakh farm ponds and dug wells in rain fed areas and 10 lakh compost pits for production of organic manure will be taken up under MGNREGA
(Resource recycling, Compost – Carbon sequestration, Farm pond – Water use efficiency, Ground water conservation)
7. Soil Health Card scheme will cover all 14 crore farm holdings by March2017.
  (Prevention of soil pollution, Reduced fertilizer consumption)
8. Green Highways to grow avenue trees along National Highways

But, the budget failed to look into deeper following issues related to green economy
No funds for biodiversity protection: forests,lakes,ponds,wetlands and other biological diversity.
2.No efforts to reduce carbon footprints: Efforts to shift to a low carbon economy are non existent. A    low carbon footprint ensures a healthier economy.
Wildlife habitats:No measures to set up national parks and WLS
No dedicated funds:A separate Green Protection Fund should be set up for environmental protection.
R&D:Increase in funds for R&D in environment are lacking. R&D would have led to better Waste Disposal methods, reducing air pollution, increased efficiency of renewable sources of energy
No polluter pays principle – A tax on pollution by industries,cars,etc could have been imposed to foster a greener country.

safeguard against fascism is to establish social justice

“The best safeguard against fascism is to establish social justice to the maximum extent possible.” Critically comment. 

Establishing social justice can potentially act as a preventive measure against fascism (form of radical authoritarian nationalism). Social justice bind people with rights and duties in the society where they can share the opportunities, resources, wealth and privileges along with the burden of cooperation. In contrast structural discrimination is ill for society and pro-fascism.
But only social justice cannot prevent fascism alone, economic justice (rise of fascism in Europe was outcome of social and economic injustice) is also needed. We need liberties of a person to be compatible with liberties of other (freedom of speech does not mean hatred speech which breaches right of dignified life of others) so that feeling of insecurity, inferiority does not arise, at the same time equality (social, civil, political, economic, legal) too has a big role to play since fascism opposes liberalism. Ruling authority must emphasise on equality, liberty and justice in its policies and actions, in letter and spirit.