Sunday, July 24, 2016


A puppet is one of the most remarkable and ingenious inventions of the man. It has been said that a puppet has to be more than his live counterpart for it is definitely the suggestive element that is more captivating and enduring in a puppet.

Ancient Hindu philosophers have paid the greatest tribute to puppeteers. They have likened God Almighty to a puppeteer and the entire universe to a puppet stage. Srimad Bhagavata, the great epic depicting the story of Lord Krishna in his childhood say that with three strings-SattaRaja and Tama, the God manipulates each object in the universe as a marionette.

In Sanskrit terminology Puttalika and Puttika means ‘little sons’. The root of Puppet is derived from the latin word ‘Pupa’ meaning a doll. India is said to be the home of puppets, but it is yet to awaken to its unlimited possibilities. The earliest reference to the art of puppetry is found in Tamil classic ‘Silappadikaaram’ written around the 1st or 2nd century B.C.

Natyashastra, the masterly treatise on dramaturgy written sometime during 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD., does not refer to the art of puppetry but the producer-cum-director of the human theatre has been termed as ‘Sutradhar’ meaning the holder of strings. The word might have found its place in theatre-terminology long before Natyashastra was written but it must come from marionette theatre. Puppetry, therefore, must have originated in India more than 500 years before Christ.

Almost all types of puppets are found in India. Puppetry throughout the ages has held an important place in traditional entertainment. Like traditional theatre, themes for puppet theatre are mostly based on epics and legends. Puppets from different parts of the country have their own identity. Regional styles of painting and sculpture are reflected in them.

Puppetry has been successfully used to motivate emotionally and physically handicapped students to develop their mental and physical faculties. Awareness programmes about the conservation of the natural and cultural environment have also proved to be useful. These programmes aim at sensitising the students to the beauty in word, sound, form, colour and movement. The aesthetic satisfaction derived from making of puppets and communicating through them helps in the all round development of the personality of the child.

Stories adapted from puranic literature, local myths and legends usually form the content of traditional puppet theatre in India which, in turn, imbibes elements of all creative expressions like painting, sculpture, music, dance, drama, etc. The presentation of puppet programmes involves the creative efforts of many people working together.
• String Puppets
• Shadow Puppets
• Rod Puppets
• Glove Puppets

In modern times, educationists all over the world have realised the potential of puppetry as a medium for communication. Many institutions and individuals in India are involving students and teachers in the use of puppetry for communicating educational concepts.
• String Puppets

India has a rich and ancient tradition of string puppets or marionettes. Marionettes having jointed limbs controlled by strings allow far greater flexibility and are, therefore, the most articulate of the puppets. Rajasthan, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are some of the regions where this form of puppetry has flourished.
• Kathputli, Rajasthan
The traditional marionettes of Rajasthan are known as Kathputli. Carved from a single piece of wood, these puppets are like large dolls that are colourfully dressed. Their costumes and headgears are designed in the medieval Rajasthani style of dress, which is prevalent even today. The Kathputli is accompanied by a highly dramatised version of the regional music. Oval faces, large eyes, arched eyebrows and large lips are some of the distinct facial features of these string puppets. These puppets wear long trailing skirts and do not have legs. Puppeteers manipulate them with two to five strings which are normally tied to their fingers and not to a prop or a support.
• Kundhei, Orissa

The string puppets of Orissa are known as Kundhei. Made of light wood, the Orissa puppets have no legs but wear long flowing skirts. They have more joints and are, therefore, more versatile, articulate and easy to manipulate. The puppeteers often hold a wooden prop, triangular in shape, to which strings are attached for manipulation. The costumes of Kundhei resemble those worn by actors of the Jatra traditional theatre. The music is drawn from the popular tunes of the region and is sometimes influenced by the music of Odissi dance.
• Gombeyatta, Karnataka
The string puppets of Karnataka are called Gombeyatta. They are styled and designed like the characters of Yakshagana, the traditional theatre form of the region. The Gombeyatta puppet figures are highly stylized and have joints at the legs, shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. These puppets are manipulated by five to seven strings tied to a prop. Some of the more complicated movements of the puppet are manipulated by two to three puppeteers at a time. Episodes enacted in Gombeyatta are usually based on Prasangas of the Yakshagana plays. The music that accompanies is dramatic and beautifully blends folk and classical elements.
• Bommalattam, Tamil Nadu
Puppets from Tamil Nadu, known as Bommalattam combine the techniques of both rod and string puppets. They are made of wood and the strings for manipulation are tied to an iron ring which the puppeteer wears like a crown on his head.
A few puppets have jointed arms and hands, which are manipulated by rods. The Bommalattam puppets are the largest, heaviest and the most articulate of all traditional Indian marionettes. A puppet may be as big as 4.5 feet in height weighing about ten kilograms. Bommalattam theatre has elaborate preliminaries which are divided into four parts - Vinayak Puja, Komali, Amanattam and Pusenkanattam
• Shadow Puppets

India has the richest variety of types and styles of shadow puppets. Shadow puppets are flat figures. They are cut out of leather, which has been treated to make it translucent. Shadow puppets are pressed against the screen with a strong source of light behind it. The manipulation between the light and the screen make silhouettes or colourful shadows, as the case may be, for the viewers who sit in front of the screen. This tradition of shadow puppets survives in Orissa. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
• Togalu Gombeyatta, Karnataka
The shadow theatre of Karnataka is known as Togalu Gombeyatta. These puppets are mostly small in size. The puppets however differ in size according to their social status, for instance, large size for kings and religious characters and smaller size for common people or servants.
 Tholu Bommalata, Andhra Pradesh
Tholu Bommalata, Andhra Pradesh's shadow theatre has the richest and strongest tradition. The puppets are large in size and have jointed waist, shoulders, elbows and knees. They are coloured on both sides. Hence, these puppets throw coloured shadows on the screen. The music is dominantly influenced by the classical music of the region and the theme of the puppet plays are drawn from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas.
• Ravanachhaya, Orissa
The most theatrically exciting is the Ravanachhaya of Orissa. The puppets are in one piece and have no joints. They are not coloured, hence throw opaque shadows on the screen. The manipulation requires great dexterity, since there are no joints. The puppets are made of deer skin and are conceived in bold dramatic poses. Apart from human and animal characters, many props such as trees, mountains, chariots, etc. are also used. Although, Ravanachhaya puppets are smaller in size-the largest not more than two feet have no jointed limbs, they create very sensitive and lyrical shadows.
• Rod Puppets
Rod puppets are an extension of glove-puppets, but often much larger and supported and manipulated by rods from below. This form of puppetry now is found mostly in West Bengal and Orissa. 
• Putul Nautch, West Bengal
The traditional rod puppet form of West Bengal is known as Putul Nautch. They are carved from wood and follow the various artistic styles of a particular region. In Nadia district of West Bengal, rod-puppets used to be of human size like the Bunraku puppets of Japan. This form is now almost extinct. The Bengal rod-puppets, which survive are about 3 to 4 feet in height and are costumed like the actors of Jatra, a traditional theatre form prevalent in the State. These puppets have mostly three joints. The heads, supported by the main rod, is joined at the neck and both hands attached to rods are joined at the shoulders.

The technique of manipulation is interesting and highly theatrical. A bamboo-made hub is tied firmly to the waist of the puppeteer on which the rod holding the puppet is placed. The puppeteers each holding one puppet, stand behind a head-high curtain and while manipulating the rods also move and dance imparting corresponding movements to the puppets. While the puppeteers themselves sing and deliver the stylized prose dialogues, a group of musicians, usually three to four in numbers, sitting at the side of the stage provide the accompanying music with a drum, harmonium and cymbals. The music and verbal text have close similarity with the Jatra theatre.

The Orissa Rod puppets are much smaller in size, usually about twelve to eighteen inches. They also have mostly three joints, but the hands are tied to strings instead of rods. Thus elements of rod and string puppets are combined in this form of puppetry. The technique of manipulation is somewhat different. The Orissa rod-puppeteers squat on the ground behind a screen and manipulate. Again it is more operatic in its verbal contents since impromptu prose dialogues are infrequently used. Most of the dialogues are sung. The music blends folk tunes with classical Odissi tunes. The music begins with a short piece of ritual orchestral preliminary called Stuti and is followed by the play.
The puppets of Orissa are smaller than those from Bengal or Andhra Pradesh. Rod puppet shows of Orissa are more operatic and prose dialogues are seldom used.
• Yampuri, Bihar
The traditional Rod puppet of Bihar is known as Yampuri. These puppets are made of wood. Unlike the traditional Rod puppets of West Bengal and Orissa, these puppets are in one piece and have no joints. As these puppets have no joints, the manipulation is different from other Rod puppets and requires greater dexterity.
• Glove Puppets
Glove puppets, are also known as sleeve, hand or palm puppets. The head is made of either papier mache, cloth or wood, with two hands emerging from just below the neck. The rest of the figure consists of a long flowing skirt. These puppets are like limp dolls, but in the hands of an able puppeteer, are capable of producing a wide range of movements. The manipulation technique is simple the movements are controlled by the human hand the first finger inserted in the head and the middle finger and the thumb are the two arms of the puppet. With the help of these three fingers, the glove puppet comes alive.
The tradition of glove puppets in India is popular in Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Kerala. In Uttar Pradesh, glove puppet plays usually present social themes, whereas in Orissa such plays are based on stories of Radha and Krishna. In Orissa, the puppeteer plays on the dholak with one hand and manipulates the puppet with the other. The delivery of the dialogues, the movement of the puppet and the beat of the dholak are well synchronised and create a dramatic atmosphere.
• Pavakoothu, Kerala
In Kerala, the traditional glove puppet play is called Pavakoothu. It came into existence during the 18th century due to the influence of Kathakali, the famous classical dance-drama of Kerala, on puppet performances. In Pavakoothu, the height of a puppet varies from one foot to two feet. The head and the arms are carved of wood and joined together with thick cloth, cut and stitched into a small bag.

The face of the puppets are decorated with paints, small and thin pieces of gilded tin, the feathers of the peacock, etc. The manipulator puts his hand into the bag and moves the hands and head of the puppet. The musical instruments used during the performance are Chenda, Chengiloa, Ilathalam andShankhathe conch. The theme for Glove puppet plays in Kerala is based on the episodes from either the Ramayana or the Mahabharata.

Sunday, July 17, 2016

क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी / हरिवंशराय बच्चन

क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी?
क्या करूँ?

मैं दुखी जब-जब हुआ
संवेदना तुमने दिखाई,
मैं कृतज्ञ हुआ हमेशा,
रीति दोनो ने निभाई,
किन्तु इस आभार का अब
हो उठा है बोझ भारी;
क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी?
क्या करूँ?

एक भी उच्छ्वास मेरा
हो सका किस दिन तुम्हारा?
उस नयन से बह सकी कब
इस नयन की अश्रु-धारा?
सत्य को मूंदे रहेगी
शब्द की कब तक पिटारी?
क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी?
क्या करूँ?

कौन है जो दूसरों को
दु:ख अपना दे सकेगा?
कौन है जो दूसरे से
दु:ख उसका ले सकेगा?
क्यों हमारे बीच धोखे
का रहे व्यापार जारी?
क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी?
क्या करूँ?

क्यों न हम लें मान, हम हैं
चल रहे ऐसी डगर पर,
हर पथिक जिस पर अकेला,
दुख नहीं बँटते परस्पर,
दूसरों की वेदना में
वेदना जो है दिखाता,
वेदना से मुक्ति का निज
हर्ष केवल वह छिपाता;
तुम दुखी हो तो सुखी मैं
विश्व का अभिशाप भारी!
क्या करूँ संवेदना लेकर तुम्हारी?
क्या करूँ?

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Shah Faesal's Post

By juxtaposing my photos with the images of a slain militant commander, a section of national media has once again fallen back upon its conventional savagery that cashes on falsehoods, divides people and creates more hatred.
At a moment when Kashmir is mourning its dead, the propaganda and provocation being dished out from red and blue newsrooms is breeding more alienation and anger in Kashmir than what Indian state can manage.
Personal vulnerability apart, the very fact of becoming a part of a ridiculous debate is something which has disturbed me very much. Have I joined IAS to do a job or to become a part of your sadistic propaganda machine? In fact when I qualified this exam I never thought of spending my whole life scratching the desk and if this nonsense around me continues, I might prefer to resign sooner than later.
I am adding to what my younger colleague Yasin Chaudhary had said earlier in his Facebook post. ZeeNews Aaj Tak TimesNow and NewsX are not going to tell you the truth about Kashmir. Please mind your head.
No Government would want to hurt it's people and when a state kills and maims it's own citizens, it's self-injury and self-decimation of the worst sort, it makes the body-politic bleed as well. So no Government can distance itself from the pain of it's people and all out efforts are being made to contain this crisis and reach out to youth. It is going to take time.
Till then we have to steer safe from spoilers who want to set Kashmir valley on fire just for the sake of TRP.
Let's pray for those who lost their lives and their eyesight in the ongoing turmoil in Kashmir and stand by one another in this moment of truth. I didn't have net access all this while and today once I saw my timeline, I realised it was the time to speak up. Inalillahi wa Ina-ilaihi rajioon.

GoI Act 1935

Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana

  1. Launched in Union Budget 2016-17, it is a pension scheme contribution in a bid to create more formal sector jobs
  2. The scheme will be applicable for the new employees, earning Rs.15,000 a month, who have worked for 240 days during a year in an establishment
  3. About 3.5 lakh establishments, which hire more than 20 workers, will be covered under the scheme
  4. Govt will pay 8.33% of wages to Employees Pension Scheme (EPS) on behalf of employers for workers during first three years of employment
  5. For this, an allocation of Rs.1,000 crore had been made in the Budget
  6. Reimbursement: The payment of the EPS contribution will be in the form of reimbursements to employers
  7. Regulatory fear: It will increase regulation in the labour market which firms would not prefer as there will be increased scrutiny of their books

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh | Ministry of Women and Child Development

RMK extends microfinance to the poorest and asset less women entrepreneurs through Intermediatroy Organisations (IMOs) for income generating activities @ 6% simple interest who in turn extend the loan to SHGs beneficiaries’ upto 14% simple rate of interest.

The existing mechanism for effective implementation of various schemes of RMK is as under:

i. On receipt of any loan application from the NGOs, a preliminary appraisal is made. If any additional documents/ information is required from the applicant side, a query letter is raised. After receipt of full set of documents, the loan is then appraised.

ii. At this stage, a decision is taken as to either refer it for pre-sanction study by the RMK officials or to decline the proposal.

iii. For those proposals which meet all the eligible criteria framed by RMK and after receipt of all required documents / information, a pre-sanction study is conducted by RMK officials.

iv. During such pre-sanction study, the RMK Officers visit the organization, check all the books and registers such as Cash Book, General Ledger, Vouchers etc. They also visit the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) promoted by the organization, interact with SHG members. Based on the feedback / information collected during the field visit, the officers prepare the Pre-sanction study report.

v. After this report, an appraisal note is prepared by the concerned Deputy Director for placing the same before the Competent Authority.

vi. The Competent Authority, after considering all the relevant facts of the case as contained in the Appraisal note, sanctions or defers the proposal for submission of further details or declines it. The applicant NGOs is conveyed the decision of the Competent Authority.

vii. After sanction of the loan by the Committee, RMK conveys the sanction to the NGOs containing all terms & conditions of the sanction.

viii. On receipt of necessary documents viz. disbursement certificate, utilization certificate, etc., the post-sanction monitoring study is conducted by the RMK officers (other than the one who had under taken the pre-sanction visit) to verify the end use of the funds, adherence to the terms & conditions of the sanction letter and quality of utilization of funds.

ix. During the Post Sanction Visit, RMK officials verify the related records, entries in books etc.

x. The women SHGs benefited out of the 1st installment of loan are also visited at random by RMK officials to verify the assets created out of RMK loan. In case of misutilization / misappropriation, RMK can also recall the loan.

xi. If the borrowers default, necessary legal action under Section 138 of Negotiable Instrumental Act, filling of Civil Suit and other recovery proceeding through appointment of Arbitrator are taken. Simultaneously the defaulting NGOs are blacklisted whereby they are debarred from availing any sort of grants or aid by any Central / State Government agency.

This information was given by the Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smt Maneka Sanjay Gandhi in reply to a starred question in the Lok Sabha today

Thursday, July 14, 2016

लौ-ए-दिल जला दूँ क्या / जॉन एलिया

फारेहा निगारिना, तुमने मुझको लिखा है
"मेरे ख़त जला दीजे ! 
मुझको फ़िक्र रहती है !
आप उन्हें गँवा दीजे !
आपका कोई साथी, देख ले तो क्या होगा !
देखिये! मैं कहती हूँ ! ये बहुत बुरा होगा !"
मैं भी कुछ कहूँ तुमसे, 
फारेहा निगारिना
ए बनाजुकी मीना 
इत्र बेज नसरीना
मैं तुम्हारे हर ख़त को लौह-ए-दिल समझता हूँ !
लौह-ए-दिल जला दूं क्या ?
जो भी सत्र है इनकी, कहकशां है रिश्तों की
कहकशां लुटा दूँ क्या ?
जो भी हर्फ़ है इनका, नक्श-ए-जान है जनानां
नक्श-ए-जान मिटा दूँ क्या ?
है सवाद-ए-बीनाई, इनका जो भी नुक्ता है
मैं उसे गंवा दूँ क्या ?
लौह-ए-दिल जला दूँ क्या ?
कहकशां लुटा दूँ क्या ?
नक्श-ए-जान मिटा दूँ क्या ?
मुझको लिख के ख़त जानम
अपने ध्यान में शायद
ख्वाब ख्वाब ज़ज्बों के 
ख्वाब ख्वाब लम्हों में 
यूँ ही बेख्यालाना 
जुर्म कर गयी हो तुम
और ख्याल आने पर 
उस से डर गयी हो तुम
जुर्म के तसव्वुर में 
गर ये ख़त लिखे तुमने
फिर तो मेरी राय में
जुर्म ही किये तुमने
जुर्म क्यूँ किये जाएँ ?
ख़त ही क्यूँ लिखे जाएँ ?

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Lok Adalat; Gram Nyayalaya

India Grants First Compulsory License to Generic Drug Producer

In a landmark move, the Indian Patent Office announced on Monday that it has issued its first compulsory license to a domestic generic drug-maker. The decision effectively ends German pharmaceutical company Bayer AG's monopoly over an anti-cancer drug and authorises the production of a low-cost version for the Indian market.
Compulsory licensing is when a government authorises a party other than the patent owner to produce the patented product or process, without the patent owner's consent.
New Delhi's decision may pave the way for other Indian generic producers to ask for compulsory licenses on patent-protected medicines if the right-holders fail to supply the products at affordable prices and in sufficient quantities. It could also potentially encourage other developing countries to use compulsory licensing for drugs for non-communicable diseases, which has until now mostly been limited to HIV drugs in these countries, experts say.
India is the world's third-largest pharmaceutical drug producer by volume; in 2011 the domestic pharmaceutical market reached a record of US$12.2 billion in sales. Patents on pharmaceutical products in India have been under the spotlight recently as Swiss drug manufacturer Novartis fights the rejection of a patent on another cancer drug on the grounds that it is not sufficiently innovative.
India only began issuing patents for drugs in 2005 in order to comply with the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). The TRIPS Agreement explicitly allows compulsory licensing as long as procedures and conditions set out in Article 31 of TRIPS are fulfilled.
Drug now poised to enter Indian market, patent office says
Under Section 84 (1) of the Indian Patent Act, any person may request a compulsory license if,  after three years from the date of the grant of a patent, the needs of the public to be covered by the invention have not been satisfied; the invention is not available to the public at an affordable price; or the patented invention is not "worked in," or manufactured in the country, to the fullest extent possible.
Bayer acquired an importing license for  Nexavar - the company's brand name for the drug sorafenib tosylate -  in 2007; the patent on the drug was granted one year later.  The company has claimed that Nexavar's sales in India were undermined by the marketing of a similar drug by another domestic generic producer, CIPLA, which it had sued for infringement.
According to the Indian Patent Office's decision, the German drug-maker did not begin importing the drug to India in 2008 and only small quantities were available during the following two years.
Bayer "took no adequate or reasonable steps to start the working of the invention in the territory of India on a commercial scale and to an adequate extent," the decision notes.
"The drug is exorbitantly priced and out of reach of most of the people," the patent authority wrote in its 62-page decision. "The product in question is not a luxury item but a lifesaving drug and it is highly important that a substantial part of the demand be met strictly. In the present case, even 1 percent of the public doesn't derive benefit of the patented drug."
In its compulsory license request, Indian generic manufacturer Natco proposed selling sorafenib tosylate at Rs. 8,800 per patient per month - approximately US $175 - resulting in a 97 percent price cut compared to Nexavar.
The compulsory license has been granted until 2020. Natco is not entitled to export the drug or to outsource its production.
The Indian Patent Office also said that Natco must pay royalties to Bayer on a quarterly basis at the rate of 6 percent of the net sales of the medicine, in accordance with remuneration guidelines set forth by the United Nations Development Programme.
Mixed response
Tido von Schoen-Angerer, Director of Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) Access Campaign, welcomed the announcement.  "The decision marks a precedent that offers hope: it shows that new drugs under patent can also be produced by generic makers at a fraction of the price, while royalties are paid to the patent holder."
"This decision serves as a warning that when drug companies are price gouging and limiting availability, there is a consequence," added Michelle Childs, Director of Policy/Advocacy at the MSF Access Campaign.
For his part, Tapan Ray of the Organisation of Pharmaceutical Producers of India - an industry group of multi-national drug-makers - opposed the decision, saying that "the solution to helping patients with innovative medicines does not lie in breaking patents or denying patent rights to the innovators."
Bayer has the option of appealing the decision; the case could potentially reach the Indian Supreme Court.
ICTSD reporting; "Bayer mulls challenge to India cancer drug ruling," AFP, 13 March 2012; "India Grants First Compulsory Licence, For Bayer Cancer Drug," IP WATCH, 12 March 2012; "India's Supreme Court to Hear Dispute on Drug Patents," NEW YORK TIMES, 6 March 2012; "Analysis: India cancer ruling opens door for cheaper drugs," REUTERS, 13 March 2012.

Saturday, July 9, 2016

New Trains

The Minister of Railways Shri Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu while presenting Railway Budget 2016-17 in Parliament today proposed to introduce the Antyodaya Express, a long-distance, fully unreserved, superfast train service, for the common man to be operated on dense routes. He also said that two to four Deen Dayalu coaches will be added in some long distance trains for unreserved travel to enhance the carrying capacity. These coaches will also have facility for potable  water and a higher number of mobile charging points.

Shri Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu said that Humsafar and Tejas will ensure cost recovery by way of tariff and non-tariff measures. Humsafar would be fully air-conditioned third AC service with an optional service for meals.  Tejas, on the other hand will showcase the future of train travel in India. Operating at speeds of 130 kmph and above, it will offer onboard services such as entertainment, local cuisine, Wi-Fi, etc. through one service provider for ensuring accountability and improved customer satisfaction. He said that overnight double-decker, Utkrisht Double-Decker Air-conditioned Yatri (UDAY) Express will be introduced on the busiest routes, which has the potential to increase carrying capacity by almost 40%.

    Humsafar: For the middle class

  • The Humsafar, which will focus on India's middle-class travellers, will be an exclusively three-tiered AC train with optional meals.
  • Tejas: For those in a hurry
  • This will be India's answer to the Bullet train, achieving speeds ranging up to 130 km per hour with quality onboard facilities.
  • Uday (Utkrisht Double Decker Air Conditioned Yatri ): For those travelling on busy routes
  • The double-decker Uday trains have been introduced with the intention of increasing passenger capacity in railway services on busy routes. These trains will run overnight, connecting major cities across the country.
  • Antyodaya: For the economically backward
  • These superfast trains, which will have only unreserved coaches, will focus on transporting the common man in a time-bound manner without burning a hole in his pocket

ये वो सहर तो नहीं | फ़ैज़

"ये दाग़-दाग़ उज़ाला, ये शब गज़ीदा सहर
वो इन्तज़ार था जिसका, ये वो सहर तो नहीं
ये वो सहर तो नहीं कि जिसकी आरज़ू लेकर
चले थे यार कि मिल जायेगी कहीं न कहीं
फ़लक के दश्त में तारों की आखिरी मंज़िल
कहीं तो होगा शब-ए-सुस्त मौज का साहिल
कहीं तो जाके रुकेगा सफ़ीना-ए-ग़म-ए-दिल
जवाँ लहू की पुरअसरार शाहराहों में
चले जो यार तो दामन पे कितने दाग़ पड़े
पुकारती रहीं बाहें, बदन बुलाते रहे
बहुत अज़ीज़ थी लेकिन रुखे सहर की लगन
बहुत करीं था हसीना-ए-नूर का दामन
सुबुक सुबुक थी तमन्ना, दबी-दबी थी थकन
सुना है हो भी चुका है फ़िराके ज़ुल्मत-ओ-नूर
सुना है हो भी चुका है विसाले-मंज़िल-ओ-गाम
बदल चुका है बहुत अहले दर्द का दस्तूर
निशाते-वस्ल हलाल-ओ-अज़ाबे-हिज़्र हराम
जिगर की आग, नज़र की उमंग, दिल की जलन
किसी पे चारा-ए-हिज़्रां का कुछ असर ही नहीं
कहां से आयी निग़ारे-सबा किधर को गयी
अभी चिराग़े-सरे-रह को कुछ खबर ही नहीं
अभी गरानी-ए-शब में कमी नहीं आयी
निज़ाते-दीदा-ओ-दिल की घड़ी नहीं आयी
चले चलो कि वो मंज़िल अभी नहीं आयी." - फ़ैज़

Friday, July 8, 2016

Wholesale banking; merchant bank

Wholesale banking is the provision of services by banks to organizations such as Mortgage Brokers, large corporate clients, mid-sized companies, real estate developers and investors, international trade finance businesses, institutional customers (such as pension funds and government entities/agencies), and services offered to other banks or other financial institutions.[1][2]
Wholesale finance refers to financial services conducted between financial services companies and institutions such as banks, insurers, fund managers, and stockbrokers.
Modern wholesale banks engage in:
  • Finance wholesaling
  • Underwriting
  • Market making
  • Consultancy
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Fund management

merchant bank is a financial institution providing capital to companies in the form of share ownership instead of loans. A merchant bank also provides advisory on corporate matters to the firms in which they invest. In the United Kingdom, the historical term "merchant bank" refers to an investment bank.
Today, according to the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), "the term merchant banking is generally understood to mean negotiated private equity investment by financial institutions in the unregistered securities of either privately or publicly held companies."[1] Both commercial banks and investment banks may engage in merchant banking activities. Historically, merchant banks' original purpose was to facilitate and/or finance production and trade of commodities, hence the name "merchant". Few banks today restrict their activities to such a narrow scope.

Classical languages

In 2004, the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a "Classical Language in India".[85] Languages thus far declared to be Classical are Tamil (in 2004),[86] Sanskrit (in 2005),[87] Kannada (in 2008), Telugu (in 2008),[88] Malayalam (in 2013),[89] and Odia (in 2014).[90][91] In a 2006 press release, Minister of Tourism & Culture Ambika Soni told the Rajya Sabha the following criteria were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a "Classical Language",[92]

High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500–2000 years; a body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers; the literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community; the classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
The Government has been criticised for not including Pali as a classical language, as experts have argued it fits all the above criteria.[93]


As per Government of India's Resolution No. 2-16/2004-US(Akademies) dated 1 November 2004, the benefits that will accrue to a language declared as "Classical Language" are
  1. Two major international awards for scholars of eminence in Classical Indian Languages are awarded annually.
  2. A 'Centre of Excellence for Studies in Classical Languages' is set up.
  3. The University Grants Commission be requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for Classical Languages for scholars of eminence in Classical Indian Languages.[94]

Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF)

The Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) was established during the 1989 G7 Summit in Paris to combat the growing problem of money laundering. The task force was charged with studying money laundering trends, monitoring legislative, financial and law enforcement activities taken at the national and international level, reporting on compliance, and issuing recommendations and standards to combat money laundering. At the time of its creation, the organisation had 16 original members.
In its first year, the FATF issued a report containing forty recommendations to more effectively fight money laundering. These standards were revised in 2003 to reflect evolving patterns and techniques in money laundering.
The mandate of the organisation was expanded to include terrorist financing following the September 11 terror attacks.